[flvplayer http://bcs.duapp.com/newce1/media/3-14.mp4 400 300]
There was a time when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago had to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for 'protection.' If the money was not paid promptly, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop. Obtaining 'protection money' is not a modern crime. As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
Six hundred years ago, Sir Johan Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence. He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded. In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away protection money was paid to them. Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero. When he died at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a pictured with as dedicated to the memory of 'the most valiant soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue.'
pay large sums of money to sb. 向某人付大笔大笔的费用
in return for 目的是为了换取----作为对……的回报
Eg.: He gave me some books in return for my help.
There was a time when mini skirt was in fashion.
put a man out of business: 使某人失业
put sb./sth.out of...使某人失去……
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience.
Eg.: You have already put everything out of order.
put it out of your mind 忘记这件事情吧
by destroying his shop 通过……手段
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience by disturbing me.
as long ago as 追溯回到； dating back to
Eg.: I knew Jane as long ago as the year 1980.
John Hawkwood's discovery was quite remarkable
make the remarkable discovery 做出不同寻常的发现
would rather ...than...宁愿而不
Eg.: He would rather die than surrender.
Eg.: I would rather play tennis than swim.
would prefer to do ... than do...
would prefer doing ... to doing...
Eg.: He would prefer to die than surrender.
Eg.: He would prefer dying to surrendering.
would rather: sooner+ that 宾语从句（过去式）
Eg. : I would rather that you were not here.
Eg.: I would rather that I didn't see you.
Eg.: He would rather that he didn't hear the news.
life work 毕生的事业
Eg.: I want to have the tree cut down.
Six hundred years ago...
settled near Florence 定居在 Florence 附近
made a name for himself: become famous
Eg.: They soon made quite a name for themselves as pop singers.
come to/get to 渐渐的
come to be known 渐渐被人所熟知
Eg.: I come to be known to my students.
Eg.: I got to know him
at war 交战； at war with 于……交战
he demanded: Hawkwood demanded
in time of peace 在和平期间
march into 大踏步行军
burn down 烧毁/burn up 烧光／burn out 烧空
would offer to go away: would promise to go away
The house was burned out only...
in spite of this 尽管如此
People in different countries have different opinions.
Eg.: the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.
give sb.a state funeral 给某人举行国葬
be dedicated to the memory of sb.
the most valiant 比较级的最高级形式
in that=because "因为",表示一种原因
段时间——for a long time（现在完成式）
prefer doing + to + 动名词
if not: 如果不＝unless
on seeing him,I ran away.
be willing to do,be prepared to do