The mummy of an Egyptian woman who died in 800 B.C. has just had an operation. The mummy is that of Shepenmut who was once a singer in the Temple of Thebes. As there were strange marks on the X-ray plates taken of the mummy, doctors have been trying to find out whether the woman died of a rare disease. The only way to do this was to operate. The operation, which lasted for over four hours, proved to be very difficult because of the hard resin which covered the skin. The doctors removed a section of the mummy and sent it to a laboratory. They also found something which the X-ray plates did not show: a small wax figure of the god Duamutef. This god which has the head of a cow was normally placed inside a mummy. The doctors have not yet decided how the woman died. They feared that the mummy would fall to pieces when they cut it open, but fortunately this has not happened. The mummy successfully survived the operation.
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1． The mummy is that of Shepenmut…这是……赛潘姆特的木乃伊。
that用以指代前面的 the mummy，以避免重复。在指代特指的事物时，尤其是在比较状语从句中，常用that和those指代前面
The cost of living here is lower than that in London.
that of和those of一般用于较正式的文体中：
The area of the USA is larger than that of Britain.
Tom's pen is better than that of the other boys.
课文中使用that of结构的原因之一是 Shepenmut需要后面跟一个补充说明她身份的关系从句。
His grandfather died of a bad cold/died of hunger.
3．The operation, which lasted for over four hours, proved to be very difficult…手术持续了4个多小时，非常难做……
The war between the two countries lasted (for) over three years/until 1453.
We've been trying to sell our house, but it's proved to be very difficult.
You should first prove that you bought these goods here.
The government which promises to cut taxes will be popular.
The government, which promises to cut taxes, will be popular.
The astronauts, who are said to be very excited, are ex pected to land on the moon shortly.
This garage, which my father built in his lifetime has lasted for a long time.
She married Joe, which(=and this/that) surprised everyone.
4．The doctors have not yet decided how the woman died.医生们
The police cannot decide yet which of the two men is guilty.
5. fall to pieces,散掉，成为碎片（也可以说go to pieces）。
During the storm, the old house fell to pieces.
After two years their marriage fell to pieces.
6.The mummy successfully survived the operation. 这具木乃伊成功地经受了这次手术。
Only a young woman and her two baby daughters survived the plane crash.
mummy n. 木乃伊
Egyptian adj. 埃及的
temple n. 庙
mark n. 斑点
plate n. （照相）底片
disease n. 疾病
last v. 持续
prove v. 显示出
resin n. 树脂
skin n. 皮肤
section n. 切片
figure n. （人的）体形；人像
normally adv. 通常地
survive v. 幸免于
B.C.为Before Christ（公元前）的缩写，A.D.表示anno Domini (=in the year of the Lord或 since Christ was born),即“公元”。A.D.用来与B.C.形成对比，出现在正式的史书中，平时一般
The mummy of an Egyptian woman who died in 800 B.C. has just had an operation.
The Romans invaded England in 55 B.C.
George I died in A.D. 1727.
Hard resin covered the skin.
We are wet to the skin.
He has a dark skin/complexion.
Shoes made of real leather have become very expensive.
This sofa is made from real leather.
Inside every mummy there is a small wax figure.
All the figures in this shop are made of wax.
I keep a candle by my bed in case the lights go out suddenly.
A What happened: died(1.1); died(1.5); lasted(1.6); proved to be(1.7); covered(1.8); moved(1.8); sent (1.9); found(1.9); did not show(1.9); was normally placed (1.10); died (1.11); feared(1.11); cut(1.12); survived (1.12)
What has happened: has just had(11.1-2); have not yet decided(1.10)
What has been happening: have been trying(1.4)
C 1 for 2 ago 3 since
4 since 5 for 6 ago…since
7 since 8 ago 9 since
1 complexion 2 leather 3 skin 4 candle 5 B.C.
1a 2c 3a 4b 5c 6d
7d 8d 9a 10a 11b 12a