新概念英语第三册22:By heart
 

一、听力mp3

(请同学们先听一边课文听力,再逐次查看课文与翻译内容。)
 

 
1.课文
Some plays are so successful that they run for years on end, In many ways, this is unfortunate for the poor actors who are required to go on repeating the same lines night after night. One would expect them to know their parts by heart and never have cause to falter. Yet this is not always the case.
A famous actor in a highly successful play was once cast in the role of an aristocrat who had been imprisoned in the Bastille for twenty years. In the last act, a gaoler would always come on to the stage with a letter which he would hand to the prisoner. Even though the noble was expected to read the letter at each performance, he always insisted that it should be written out in full.
One night, the gaoler decided to play a joke on his colleague to find out if, after so many performances, he had managed to learn the contents of the letter by heart. The curtain went up on the final act of the play and revealed the aristocrat sitting alone behind bars in his dark cell. Just then, the gaoler appeared with the precious letter in his bands. He entered the cell and presented the letter to the aristocrat. But the copy he gave him had not been written out in full as usual. It was simply a blank sheet of paper. The gaoler looked on eagerly, anxious to see if his fellow actor had at last learnt his lines. The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds. Then, squinting his eyes, he said: 'The light is dim. Read the letter to me'. And he promptly handed the sheet of paper to the gaoler. Finding that he could not remember a word of the letter either, the gaoler replied: 'The light is indeed dim, sire, I must get my glasses.' With this, he hurried off the stage. Much to the aristocrat's amusement, the gaoler returned a few moments later with a pair of glasses and the usual copy of the letter with he proceeded to read to the prisoner.
 
2.翻译
有些剧目十分成功,以致连续上演好几年。这样一来,可怜的演员们可倒霉了。因为他们需要一夜连着一夜地重复同样的台词。人们以为,这些演员一定会把台词背得烂熟,绝不会临场结巴的,但情况却并不总是这样。
有一位名演员曾在一出极为成功的剧目中扮演一个贵族角色,这个贵族已在巴士底狱被关押了20年。在最后一幕中,狱卒手持一封信上场,然后将信交给狱中那位贵族。尽管那个贵族每场戏都得念一遍那封信。但他还是坚持要求将信的全文写在信纸上。
一天晚上,狱卒决定与他的同事开一个玩笑,看看他反复演出这么多场之后,是否已将信的内容记熟了。大幕拉开,最后一幕戏开演,贵族独自一人坐在铁窗后阴暗的牢房里。这时狱卒上场,手里拿着那封珍贵的信。狱卒走进牢房,将信交给贵族。但这回狱卒给贵族的信没有像往常那样把全文写全,而是一张白纸。狱卒热切地观察着,急于想了解他的同事是否记熟了台词。贵族盯着纸看了几秒钟,然后,眼珠一转,说道:“光线太暗,请给我读一下这封信。”说完,他一下子把信递给狱卒。狱卒发现自己连一个字也记不住,于是便说:“陛下,这儿光线的确太暗了,我得去眼镜拿来。”他一边说着,一边匆匆下台。贵族感到非常好笑的是:一会儿工夫,狱卒重新登台,拿来一副眼镜以及平时使用的那封信,然后为那囚犯念了起来。
 

二、学习视频

(新概念系列英语学习视频由本站整理分享,仅供参考。同学们可根据教学视频记录笔记,以便复习。)
[flvplayer http://bcs.duapp.com/newce1/media/3-22.mp4 400 300]
(手机端无法播放视频,请从PC上浏览)
 

三、课文精讲

(课文精讲根据顺序分析课文重点)
 
(Attention: The following points are not covered by the video. It is better for you to watch the video or listen to the MP3 first and try to take notes on your own. Then you may check here to get more details. )

1, Some plays are so successful that they run for years on end.
on end
a.== continuously: 连续的,位于具体的时间之后
Eg: He sat there for hours on end.
We had hardly anything to eat for days on end.
b. ==upright 竖着
Eg: The cat's fur stood on end.
I got a big shock so my hear stood on end.我吓了一大跳,以致于毛骨悚然。

2, In many ways, this is unfortunate for the poor actors who are required to go on repeating the same lines night after night.
who = actor, 关系代词做主语,不能省略
Eg.: The student who was required to recite the poem 100 times is really poor.

3,One would expect them to know their parts by heart and never have cause to falter.
learn/ know by heart: 把……牢记在心
Eg.: The sentence is so important that you must learn it by heart.
heart and soul 全心全意的,全身心的
Eg: We serve the students heart and soul
take heart 鼓起勇气,恢复信心
lose heart 失去信心
lose heart to sb= give heart to sb: 轻信于某人
Eg: The boy lost his heart to the girl
put one's heart into sth: 致力于某事
Eg: Nothing is difficult if you put your heart into it.世上无难事,只怕有心人
have one's heart in one's boots提心吊胆
Eg: He had his heart in his boots when he went out alone at night.

4,Even though the noble was expected to read the letter at each performance
even though = even if = though / although
at each performance = at every performance

5, he always insisted that it should be written out in full.
insist: 坚决要求,suggest:建议, order:命令,demand:要求,require:要求
表示建议/要求/希望,和that宾语从句搭配,that从句必须出现should + 动词原形的虚拟,should 可以省略。
in full==fully=completely

6, The curtain went up on the final act of the play and revealed the aristocrat sitting alone behind bars in his dark cell.
on the final act == in the last act 最后一场演出

7, The gaoler looked on eagerly, anxious to see if his fellow actor had at last learnt his lines.
look on 旁观
anxious,形容词短语做伴随状况状语

8, The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds.
stare at 一眨不眨地看
squinting: ing形式,做方式状语,伴随状况状语

9,One night, the gaoler decided to play a joke on his colleague to find out if, after so many performances, he had managed to learn the contents of the letter by heart.
play a joke on 开玩笑; play a trick on 捉弄,单方面取乐
have a joke with sb. 和某人开玩笑,强调两人共同取乐
Eg.: He laughs best who laughs last. 笑到最后的才是笑得最好的。
 

四、单词学习

1、提示:n.名词、adj.形容词、vi.不及物动词、vt.及物动词、adv.副词、prep.介词、pron.代词、int.感叹词、num.数词、abbr.短语缩写
2、双击或选中某个单词可划词查字典,如下图:(手机端无法使用此功能)

划词工具示意图

划词工具示意图

3、单词列表:
run (ran, run)
v. (戏剧,电影等)连演,连映
lines
n. (剧本中的)台词

part
n. 剧中的角色,台词
falter
v. 支吾,结巴说
cast (cast, cast)
v. 连派……扮演角色
role
n. 角色
aristocrat
n. 贵族
imprison
v. 关押
Bastille
n. 巴士底狱
gaoler
n. 监狱长,看守
colleague
n. 同事
curtain
n. (舞台上的)幕布
reveal
v. 使显露
cell
n. 单人监房,监号
 

五、重点难点

定语从句(二)
如果用定语从句把两个句子合二为一:首先找出两个句子当中相同的部分,定语从句修饰的就是这一部分。要把其中一个句子变成定语从句,就要把这句中相同的那个部分用一个关系词来代替;代替时,先看被代替的部分是指人还是指物、再看它作什么句成分。
指人并作主语的,就用who或that;指人并作宾语的,就用whom或that;指人并作定语的,就用whose。指物并作主语的,就用which或that认指物并作宾语的,还是用which或that认是物并作定语的,就用whose或of which。
这样找好并替换以后,再把这个关系代词放到要变成定语从句的那个句子的最前面(被代替的部分不能再保留,其它的词语一律不变),这个句子就变成了定语从句。然后,再把这个定语从句整个放在被修饰的词后面,最后,如果还有其它句子成分,就把它们放到定语从句的后面,就行了。
例如:Have you found the book? You were looking for the book yesterday.
在这两个句子中,the book是相同的,定语从句修饰的就是the book。把后面这一句变成定语从句,找个关系词来代替the book;在将要被变成定语从句的名子中,the book是物并作宾语,所以用which或that代替它。
that/which代替的是原句中的宾语,原句变成了从句,它们仍然作从句的宾语。关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略,因此上句又可变成“have you found the book you were looking for yesterday?”.

 

六、课后练习答案

  【Multiple choice questions】
  1. ...A
  He laughs best,who laughs last.
  2. ...C
  end with...以...结束
  3. ...C
  Structure
  4.C
  with a letter独立主格结构
  with a letter for the prisoner.
  5.A
  insist that+should
  insist on + 名词,动名词
  6.C
  7.C
  give him a copy
  a 表示任意的一份;the表示特指
  8.A
  neither,nor用于句首,句子倒装
  Vocabulary
  9.D
  play a joke on 开玩笑;play a trick on 捉弄,单方面取乐
  have a joke with sb.和某人开玩笑,强调两人共同取乐
  I've just had a joke with my classmate.
  10.D
  finally最后
  lastly顺序上的最后
  in the end强调最终失败的结果
  He worked harder and harder,but in the end he failed.
  11.B
  peer about 眯着眼睛看
  When you enter a cinema,you often have to peer about...
  search搜寻,寻找;search for sth.
  blink眨眼睛
  stare盯着看;stare at
  12.C
  inform表示正式的通知