新概念英语第三册38:The first calender
 

一、听力mp3

(请同学们先听一边课文听力,再逐次查看课文与翻译内容。)
 

 
1.课文
Future historians will be in a unique position when they come to record the history of our own times. They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. What is more, they will not have to rely solely on the written word. Films, videos, CDs and CD-ROMS are just some of the bewildering amount of information they will have. They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action. But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task. He has to deduce what he can from the few scanty clues available. Even seemingly insignificant remains can shed interesting light on the history of early man.
Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, for then man was faced with a real need to understand something about the seasons. Recent scientific evidence seems to indicate that this assumption is incorrect.
Historians have long been puzzled by dots, lines and symbols which have been engraved on walls, bones, and the ivory tusks of mammoths. The nomads who made these markings lived by hunting and fishing during the last Ice Age which began about 35,000 B.C. and ended about 10,000 B.C. By correlating markings made in various parts of the world, historians have been able to read this difficult code. They have found that it is connected with the passage of days and the phases of the moon. It is, in fact, a primitive type of calendar. It has long been known that the hunting scenes depicted on walls were not simply a form of artistic expression. They had a definite meaning, for they were as near as early man could get to writing. It is possible that there is a definite relation between these paintings and the markings that sometimes accompany them. It seems that man was making a real effort to understand the seasons 20,000 years earlier than has been supposed.
 
2.翻译
未来的历史学家在写我们这一段历史的时候会别具一格。对于逐渐积累起来的庞大材料,他们几乎不知道选取哪些好,而且,也不必完全依赖文字材料。电影、录像、光盘和光盘驱动器只是能为他们提供令人眼花缭乱的大量信息的几种手段。他们能够身临其境般地观看我们做事,倾听我们讲话。但是,历史学家企图重现遥远的过去可是一项艰巨的任务,他们必须根据现有的不充分的线索进行推理。即使看起来微不足道的遗物,也可能揭示人类早期历史的一些有趣的内容。
历史学家迄今认为日历是随农业的问世而出现的,因为当时人们面临着了解四季的实际需要,但近期科学研究发现,好像这种假设是不正确的。
长期以来,历史学家一直对雕刻在墙壁上、骨头上、古代长毛象的象牙上的点、线和形形色色的符号感到困惑不解。这些痕迹是游牧人留下的,他们生活在从公元前约35,000年到公元前10,000年的冰川期的末期,以狩猎、捕鱼为生。历史学家通过把世界各地留下的这种痕迹放在一起研究,终于弄懂了这种费解的代码。他们发现代码与昼夜更迭和月亮圆缺有关,事实上是一种最原始的日历。大家早就知道,画在墙上的狩猎图景并不是单纯的艺术表现形式,它们有着一定的含义,因为它们已接近古代人的文字形式。有时,这种图画与墙壁上的刻痕共存,它们之间可能有一定的联系。看来人类早就致力于探索四季变迁了,比人们想像的要早20,000年。
 

二、学习视频

(新概念系列英语学习视频由网友整理分享,仅供参考。同学们可根据教学视频记录笔记,以便复习。)
[flvplayer http://bcs.duapp.com/newce1/media/3-38.mp4 400 300]
(手机端无法播放视频,请用电脑百度搜索"哈喽英语"进行学习。)
 

三、课文精讲

(课文精讲根据顺序分析课文重点)
 
(Attention: The following points are not covered by the video. It is better for you to watch the video or listen to the MP3 first and try to take notes on your own. Then you may check here to get more details. )

1.Future historians will be in a unique position when they come to record the history of our own times.
in a unique position: 处于无以伦比,独一无二的情况
come to: start, begin

2.They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. .
背诵句型
select from 从......中进行选择(同类中)

choose挑选(凭个人意愿)

1)有三种情况choose和 select不能互换:

1.当在两者中选一个时只能用choose, 即choose between

Ex
We have to choose between leaving early and paying for taxi.

2.choose可带 wh从句
Ex

I'll let you choose where we should go to eat.

3.choose to do 只能用choose.
Ex
What invariably happens is that a great number of things choose to go wrong at precisely the same moment.(L33 )

He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and is fully aware of the consequences. (L27)

2)select比choose更正式, 即在许多同类的人或物当中根据客观标准对这两个加以比较,鉴别,认真地挑选出最好的、最喜欢的、最有用的。

Ex

She selected a dictionary from the library.

3.What is more they will not have to rely solely on the written word. Films, videos. CDs and CD-ROMs are just some of the bewildering amount of information they will have.
What is more 更有甚者,furthremore,moreover 是的意思

what is worse 更糟糕的是

rely on: depend on 依靠,指望
Ex

They have to rely on rain for their water. 依靠
We are relying on you to get us out of this mess. 指望

solely: adv. 唯一地 only, just, nearly

4.They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action.
背诵句型
as it were 可以说,似乎,好像.此位虚拟语气的状语从句,可用于各种时态的句子中.通常作为独立成分的插入语使用,位于句中,前后用逗号分开.其作用是表示所指的那个词或那句话是个比喻说法.
Ex
He is as it were a walking dictionary.
A good dictionary is a useful tool and , as it were, a constant friend to a student of language.

比较
as it is =in fact=in really=actually=as a matter of fact 事实上
Ex
I thought things would get better,but as it is , they are getting worse.

5.But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task.

be faced with: be in the position in which one must deal with a problem or unpleasant situation. 面临(因境,问题)往往不是出于主语的意愿.

Ex
A great many people are faced with losing their jobs.
He was faced with many difficulties which, with the help of his friends, he successfully overcame.

6.Even seemingly insignificant remains can shed interesting light on the history of early man.
shed light on=throw light on = cast light on 意思是:make a matter clear or understood...照亮...使...清楚显现.
Ex
Can you shed any light on the case of the fire?
The investingation shed new light on the mystery.

remains ==ruins 遗迹,遗物
insignificant==unimportant

7.Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture,for then man was faced with a real need to understand something about the seasons.
up to now = so far 到目前为止

come into being == come into existence 产生,出现

be faced with a real need to do sth. 面临着做某事的真正需要
Ex
We are faced with a real need to learn English well.

8. Recent scientific evidence seems to indicate that this assumption is incorrect.
indicate 揭示

9.By correlating markings made in various parts of the world, historians have been able to read this difficult code.
correlate 相互联系

By...world作方式状语,修饰 have been able to read . 此介词短语中的made in...world 为过去分词短语作定语,修饰markings.

10. It has long been known that the hunting scenes depicted on walls were not simply a form of artistic expression.
It作形式主语,其后由关系连词引导的从句为逻辑主语. that 从句中的depicted on walls 为过去分词短语, 作定语, 修饰scenes.

 

四、单词学习

1、提示:n.名词、adj.形容词、vi.不及物动词、vt.及物动词、adv.副词、prep.介词、pron.代词、int.感叹词、num.数词、abbr.短语缩写
2、双击或选中某个单词可划词查字典,如下图:(手机端无法使用此功能)

划词工具示意图

划词工具示意图

3、单词列表:
calendar
n. 历法,日历
historian
n. 历史学家
unique
adj. 无与伦比的
steadily
adv. 不断地
solely
adv. 唯一地
video
n. 录像
CD-ROOM
n. (只读)光盘驱动器
bewilder
v. 令人眼花缭乱
deduce
v. 推断,推理
scanty
adj. 不足的,贫乏的
clue
n. 线索
insignificant
adj. 不重要的
shed
v. 使流出,泻
advent
n. 出现,到来,来临
agriculture
n. 农业
assumption
n. 假定,设想
dot
n. 小圆点
symbol
n. 符号
engrave
v. 雕刻
ivory
n. 象牙制品
mammoth
n. (古)长毛象
tusk
n. 獠牙,长牙,象牙
nomad
n. 游牧民
correlate
v. 使相互联系
phase
n. 月相,天相
primitive
adj. 原始的
depict
v. 描画,描绘

 

五、课后练习答案

1b 2d 3a 4d 5c 6b 7c 8b 9a 10a 11c 12a