Part II Reading Comprehension（Skimming and Scanning)
A Grassroots Remedy
Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular leisure activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them instinctively heads to the park or the river. It is my profound belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.
But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees on Streatham Common, South London. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found.
The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (多动症). Those whose accommodation had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%.
A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, academic levels were raised across the entire school.
Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity.
Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School in Streatham, with its harsh tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners fantasising about wildlife.
But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.
One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places.
The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. The increasing emphasis for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality.
In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world.
Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its restorative process helps reduce anger and impulsive behaviour.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution.
We tend to look on nature conservation as some kind of favour that human beings are granting to the natural world. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damaging.
Human beings are a species of mammals (哺乳动物). For seven million years they lived on the planet as part of nature. Our ancestral selves miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a pint of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that.
We need the wild world. It is essential to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without the wild world we are not more but less civilised. Without other living things around us we are less than human.
Five ways to find harmony with the natural world
Walk: Break the rhythm of permanently being under a roof. Get off a stop earlier, make a circuit of the park at lunchtime, walk the child to and from school, get a dog, feel yourself moving in moving air, look, listen, absorb.
Sit: Take a moment, every now and then, to be still in an open space. In the garden, anywhere that’s not in the office, anywhere out of the house, away from the routine. Sit under a tree, look at water, feel refreshed, ever so slightly renewed.
Drink: The best way to enjoy the natural world is by yourself; the second best way is in company. Take a drink outside with a good person, a good gathering: talk with the sun and the wind with birdsong for background.
Learn: Expand your boundaries. Learn five species of bird, five butterflies, five trees, five bird songs. That way, you see and hear more: and your mind responds gratefully to the greater amount of wildness in your life.
Travel: The places you always wanted to visit: by the seaside, in the country, in the hills. Take a weekend break, a day-trip, get out there and do it: for the scenery, for the way through the woods, for the birds, for the bees. Go somewhere special and bring specialness home. It lasts forever, after all.
1. What is the author’s profound belief?
［A］ People instinctively seek nature in different ways.
［B］ People should spend most of their lives in the wild.
［C］ People have quite different perceptions of nature.
［D］ People must make more efforts to study nature.
【解题思路】问题是作者的profound belief，第一段的最后一句给出了答案，whether we know we are doing so or not（不管我们知道与否）相当于句中的instinctively（本能地）.
2.What does the author say people prefer for their children nowadays?
［A］ Personal freedom.
［B］ Things that are natural.
［C］ Urban surroundings.
［D］ Things that are purchased.
【解题思路】文中第二段最后一句给出了答案，“odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought”，奇怪的新观念，什么对孩子最好，能买到的东西。
3.What does a study in Sweden show?
［A］ The natural environment can help children learn better.
［B］ More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.
［C］ A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities.
［D］ Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD.
4.Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________.
［A］ tend to develop a strong love for science
［B］ are more likely to fantasise about wildlife
［C］ tend to be physically tougher in adulthood
［D］ are less likely to be involved in bullying
【解题思路】此题对应的是第六段的第一句，the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore，恃强凌弱的现象在孩子们感兴趣去发现的自然环境中很少发生。因此，D选项是正确答案。
5.What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD?
［A］ Find more effective drugs for them.
［B］ Provide more green spaces for them.
［C］ Place them under more personal care.
［D］ Engage them in more meaningful activities.
6.In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature?
［A］They look on life optimistically.
［B］They enjoy a life of better quality.
［C］ They are able to live longer.
［D］ They become good-humoured.
【解题思路】第九段第一句：The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. 如果老年人有接触大自然的机会，生活状况会明显改善不少。第二句点出老龄人口增长的侧重点是在高质量的生活水平上，紧接着又指出绿色的生活方式是达到这种高质量生活水平的最重要因素。
7.Dr William Bird suggests in his study that ________.
［A］ humanity and nature are complementary to each other
［B］ wild places may induce impulsive behaviour in people
［C］ access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence
［D］ it takes a long time to restore nature once damaged
8.It is extremely harmful to think that humanity and the natural world can be______________
【解题思路】对应到文中第12段，humanity and the natural world are separable things，得到答案separated，语态转变。照抄separable是不正确的。
9.The author believes that we would not be so civilised without ____________________
【参考答案】the wild word
【解题思路】最后一段第二句：Without the wild world we are not more but less civilized. 照抄过来就行。
10.The five suggestions the author gives at the end of the passage are meant to encourage people to seek _________________ with the natural world.
【解题思路】这道题考察的是最后几段的小标题，Five ways to find harmony with the natural world。因此harmony是正确答案。
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
What determines the kind of person you are? What factors make you more or less bold, intelligent, or able to read a map? All of these are influenced by the interaction of your genes and the environment in which you were 47 . The study of how genes and environment interact to influence 48 activity is known as behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics has made important 49 to the biological revolution, providing information about the extent to which biology influences mind, brain and behavior.
Any research that suggests that 50 to perform certain behaviors are based in biology is controversial. Who wants to be told that there are limitations to what you can 51 based on something that is beyond your control, such as your genes? It is easy to accept that genes control physical characteristics such as sex, race and eye color. But can genes also determine whether people will get divorced, how 52 they are, or what career they are likely to choose? A concern of psychological scientists is the 53 to which all of these characteristics are influenced by nature and nurture(养育), by genetic makeup and the environment. Increasingly, science 54 that genes lay the groundwork for many human traits. From this perspective, people are born 55 like undeveloped photographs: The image is already captured, but the way it 56 appears can vary based on the development process. However, the basic picture is there from the beginning.
［A］ abilities ［I］ extent
［B］ achieve ［J］ indicates
［C］ appeal ［K］ proceeds
［D］ complaints ［L］ psychological
［E］ contributions ［M］ raised
［F］ displayed ［N］ smart
［G］ essentially ［O］ standard
47. M) raised:处决与成长环境；
48. L) psychological:基因决定内在的心里行为；
49. E) contributions:注意后面to，与之搭配易解；
50. A) abilities: perform certain behaviors表现行为的能力，
51. B) achieve:表示一种可以取得的、可以实现的行为或目标，因为基因决定而不受人的控制；
52. N) smart:形容人又多？，再此只有smart合适；
53. I) extent:这句，科学家关心的是….对之影响的程度extent；
54. J) indicates:科学表明……
55. G) essentially:本质上的相似
56. H) eventually:个别的表现形式会各不相同；
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job. For some industrial scientists, however, the attractions of academia (学术界) outweigh any financial considerations.
Helen Lee took a 70% cut in salary when she moved from a senior post in Abbott Laboratories to a medical department at the University of Cambridge. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions. Some areas of inquiry have few prospects of a commercial return, and Lee’s is one of them.
The impact of a salary cut is probably less severe for a scientist in the early stages of a career. Guy Grant, now a research associate at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge, spent two years working for a pharmaceutical (制药的) company before returning to university as a post-doctoral researcher. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.
Higher up the ladder, where a pay cut is usually more significant, the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry is forcing universities to make the transition (转换) to academia more attractive, according to Lee. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplinary team, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate, says Lee, perhaps experience in manufacturing practice or product development. “Only a small number of undergraduates will continue in an academic career. So someone leaving university who already has the skills needed to work in an industrial lab has far more potential in the job market than someone who has spent all their time on a narrow research project.”
57.By “a one-way street” (Line 1, Para. 1), the author means ________.
［A］ university researchers know little about the commercial world
［B］ there is little exchange between industry and academia
［C］ few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university
［D］ few university professors are willing to do industrial research
【解题思路】问单行道的意思是什么。文章第一段就说“It is pretty much a one-way street.While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction.”高校研究者到商界去碰运气可能很常见，但是相反的方向却人很少。也就是说很少有商界的人愿意回归学校做纯学术研究。所以选C，很少有工业科学家愿意放弃去一个高校工作。industrial scientists在文中指的就是商界人士。
58. The word “deterrent” (Line 2, Para. 1) most probably refers to something that ________.
［A］ keeps someone from taking action
［B］ helps to move the traffic
［C］ attracts people’s attention
［D］ brings someone a financial burden
59. What was Helen Lee’s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career?
［A］ Flexible work hours. ［C］ Her preference for the lifestyle on campus.
［B］ Her research interests. ［D］ Prospects of academic accomplishments.
【解题思路】问Helen Lee在职业生涯中期换工作的首要考虑是什么。第二段是这么说的：Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions。利用更大的自由来选择研究的问题。也就是说之前不在academia的时候，没有那么多的选择空间：什么赚钱做什么，现在可以自己根据自己的喜好来choose了。所以选B。
60. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to ________.
［A］ do financially more rewarding work
［B］ raise his status in the academic world
［C］ enrich his experience in medical research
［D］ exploit better intellectual opportunities
【解题思路】问Guy Grant问什么选择做剑桥研究者。第三段的最后一句话是这么说的： He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.所以这题选D。
61. What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university?
［A］ Increase its graduates’ competitiveness in the job market
［B］ Develop its students’ potential in research.
［C］ Help it to obtain financial support from industry.
［D］ Gear its research towards practical applications.
【解题思路】问当工业科学家去高校教书时能做什么样的贡献。答案在最后一段：They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate。他们给学术角色的教书面带来了一些额外的东西，这些东西在学生毕业时可以帮助他们找工作。所以选A：提高毕业生在就业市场上的竞争力。
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two to a woman’s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.
Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn’t smoke. There’s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse’s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.
So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.
A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: “People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.”
62. William Farr’s study and other studies show that _________.
［A］ social life provides an effective cure for illness
［B］ being sociable helps improve one’s quality of life
［C］ women benefit more than men from marriage
［D］ marriage contributes a great deal to longevity
【解题思路】根据题目中的关键词Willian Farr找到对应的出题段落——文章第一段。根据文章第一段中the biggest longevity(长寿) boost seems to come from marriage…直接可以得知D项正确。A项“交际活动能有效治疗疾病”和B项“好交际能提高一个人的生活质量”在文中找不到依据，文章的重点是讲述交际活动（主要是夫妻间）对于寿命的积极作用；由文中marriage could add as much as seven years to a man's life and two to a woman's可知C项错误。
63. Linda Waite’s studies support the idea that _________.
［A］ older men should quit smoking to stay healthy
［B］ marriage can help make up for ill health
［C］ the married are happier than the unmarried
［D］ unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life
【解题思路】由关键词Linda Waite锁定本题的出题源应该在第二段。由第二段中的两个例子：一是患有心脏疾病的已婚老人要比没有相关疾病的未婚老人寿命长约4年；二是一个每天要抽一包多香烟的已婚老人和一个从不吸烟的离过婚的老人寿命几乎一样长。可以推断出B项“婚姻有助于人的身体健康。”A项“为了身体健康老人应戒烟”并不是Linda Waite的研究发现；C、D两项在文中找不到依据。
64. It can be inferred from the context that the “flip side” (Line 4, Para. 2) refers to _________.
［A］ the disadvantages of being married
［B］ the emotional problems arising from marriage
［C］ the responsibility of taking care of one’s family
［D］ the consequence of a broken marriage
【解题思路】由问题中的关键词flip side找到此题的出题源——文章第二段。flip side的字面意思是“反面，对立面”，第二段短语flip side前面讲了两个例子来说明婚姻对老年人身体健康的积极意义（见63题解析），后面用however一转，又给了两个研究发现：一、夫妻双方当其中一个去世了，另一个在随后的几年内很可能生病或是离世；二、一人在照顾其换有精神错乱疾病的配偶时可能后来也患有相同的疾病。这两个发现显然都是夫妻生活的负面影响，因此选择A项。
65. What does the author say about social networks?
［A］ They have effects similar to those of a marriage.
［B］ They help develop people’s community spirit.
［C］ They provide timely support for those in need.
［D］ They help relieve people of their life’s burdens.
【解题思路】由问题中的关键词social networks找到出题源——文章第二段最后一句。由all kinds of social networks have similar effects可推断选择A项。很显然这里的similar effects指的是marriage’s effects。文章的第三段提到了社交网络对一个人的种种益处，但并未谈及B、C、D三项所陈述的内容
66. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
［A］ It’s important that we develop a social network when young.
［B］ To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.
［C］ Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span.
［D］ We should share our social networks with each other.
【解题思路】题目问的是“由最后一段能推断出什么？”最后一段主要讲的是“要想寿命长就要建立社交网络”。有意思的是Christakis的这句话"People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected."（人类是相互联系的群体，他们的健康也是如此） 仔细品味它的弦外之音，假如你的朋友个个身体欠佳，那么你身体也不会好到哪里去。由此可推断出本题选B项。