“动词不定式作定语”详细讲解
 

一、动词不定式的结构

to+动词原形

二、动词不定式作定语

1、动词不定式与其所修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,如果该不定式是不及物动词,或者该不定式本身有宾语,其后应有必要的介词。
例句:
He wants water to drink.他要喝水。
She has a child to take care of.她有一个孩子要照顾。
Are you going to the conference to be held next week?你准备参加下周举行的会议吗?
2、作定语的不定式可以表示情态意义。作定语的不定式有时含有情态意义,相当于may,can,will,would或should所具有的含有。
例句:
He has no friend to depend on.他没有可以依靠的朋友。(to depend on=whom he can depend on)
He is not the kind of man to do such things.他不是可能做这种事的人。(to do such things=whom may do such things)
I have a lot of work to finish today.我今天有许多工作要完成。(to finish=which I should finish或which I must finish)
3、不定式可以修饰there be结构中做主语名词。
例句:
There is a good rule to go by.有一项应该遵守的好制度。
There is not a moment to lose.刻不容缓。
She knows all there is to know.所有的事情她全都知道。
4、不定式常用于“have+the+抽象名词”结构中。
例句:
She has the kindness to help you.她出于好意帮助你。
I didn't have the heart to tell you the bad news.我不忍心把这个坏消息告诉你。
5、有些名词后常跟不定式作定语。例如time,way,right,chance,reason,effort,ambition,movement。
例句:
It is already time to start spring sowing.是开始春播的时候了。
Thank you for giving me the chance to make the speech.谢谢你给我发言的机会。
6、有些动词和形容词后常跟不定式,这些动词和形容词派生出来的名词后也可用不定式作定语。例如ability,agreement,anxiety,decision,plan,need,determination,willingness
,readiness,impatience,inclination,obligation,eagerness。
例句:
His eagerness to get back home was quite obvious.看得出他急于回家。
She made an attempt to overcome her weaknesses.她努力克服自己的缺点。
7、不定式可以修饰做主语的名词,相当于一个定语从句,表明动作即将发生。
例句:
The future to greet us will be bright.我们的未来将是美好的。
The plans to be made are of vital importance.要制定的计划至关重要。
8、the first,the second,the last,the best,the only thing等常跟不定式作定语。
例句:
She is always the first to answer questions.她总是第一个回答问题。
He would be the last to agree to the plan.他决不会同意这项计划。
9、当go,spare作“剩下”解时,可作定语;另外还有“with/without+名词+不定式”结构。
例句:
With much money to spend,the boy was spoiled.那个男孩花钱如流水,被惯坏了。
He left on a cold morning,without anyone to see him off.他在一个寒冷的早上离开的,没有人为他送行。
10、a much-to-be-longed-for place——不定式作前置定语。不定式作定语时一般需后置,但由连字符连接的不定式短语作定语则要前置,为一种简洁的表达法,其组成结构一般有“动词+名词/代词”、“动词+动词”、“动词+副词”、“形容词+动词”几类。
例句:
a do-nothing man(一个无所事事的人)
a strong-to-be-desired travel(一次十分渴望的旅行)
the take-home pay(带回家的工资)
a never-to-be-executed plan(一个永远也施行不了的计划)