Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Section A
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Global warming is a trend toward warmer conditions around the world. Part of the warming is natural; we have experienced a 20 000-year-long warming as the last ice age ended and the ice 36 away. However, we have already reached temperatures that are in ___37____ with other minimum-ice periods, so continued warming is likely not natural. We are ___38___ to a predicted worldwide increase in temperatures ___39 ___ between 1℃ and 6℃ over the next 100 years. The warming will be more ___40____ in some areas, less in others, and some places may even cool off. Likewise, the___41____ of this warming will be very different depending on where you are coastal areas must worry about rising sea levels, while Siberia and northern Canada may become more habitable(宜居的)and 42 for humans than these areas are now.
The fact remains, however, that it will likely get warmer, on___43____, everywhere. Scientists are in general agreement that the warmer conditions we have been experiencing are at least in part the result of a human-induced global warming trend. Some scientists ___44____ that the changes we are seeing fall within the range of random(无规律的)variation—some years are cold, others warm, and we have just had an unremarkable string of warm years ___45___ but that is becoming an increasingly rare interpretation in the face of continued and increasing warm conditions.
注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2 上作答。
A) appealing
B) average
C) contributing
D) dramatic
E) frequently
F) impact
G) line
H) maintain
I) melted
J) persist
K) ranging
L) recently
M) resolved
N) sensible
O) shock
Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
The End of the Book?
A) Amazon, by far the largest bookseller in the country, reported on May 19 that it is now selling more books in its electronic Kindle format than in the old paper-and-ink format. That is remarkable, considering that the Kindle has only been around for four years. E-books now account for 14 percent of all book sales in this country and arc increasing far faster than overall book sales. E-book sales are up 146 percent over last year, while hardback sales increased 6 percent and paperbacks decreased 8 percent.
B) Does this spell the doom of the physical book? Certainly not immediately, and perhaps not at all. What it does mean is that the book business will go through a transformation in the next decade or so more profound than any it has seen since Gutenberg introduced printing from moveable type in the 1450s.
C) Physical books will surely become much rarer in the marketplace. Mass market paperbacks, which have been declining for years anyway, will probably disappear, as will hardbacks for mysteries, thrillers, “ romance fiction,” etc. Such books, which only rarely end up in permanent collections, either private or public, will probably only be available as e-books within a few years. Hardback and trade paperbacks for “serious” nonfiction and fiction will surely last longer. Perhaps it will become the mark of an author to reckon with that he or she is still published in hard copy.
D) As for children’s books, who knows? Children’s books are like dog food in that the purchasers are not the consumers, so the market (and the marketing) is inherently strange.
E) For clues to the book's future. Jet's look at some examples of technological change and see what happened to the old technology.
F) One technology replaces another only because the new technology is better, cheaper, or both. The greater the difference, the sooner and more thoroughly the new technology replaces the old. Printing with moveable type on paper dramatically reduced the cost of producing a book compared with the old-fashioned ones handwritten on vellum, which comes from sheepskin. A Bible—to be sure, a long book—required vellum made from 300 sheepskins and countless man-hours of labor. Before printing arrived, a Bible cost more than a middle-class house. There were perhaps 50 000 books in all of Europe in 1450. By 1500 there were 10 million.
G) But while printing quickly caused the handwritten book to die out. handwriting lingered on(继续存在)well into the 16th century. Very special books are still occasionally produced on vellum, but they are one-of-a-kind show pieces.
H) Sometimes a new technology doesn't drive the old one out. but only parts of it while forcing the rest to evolve. The movies were widely predicted to drive live theater out of the marketplace, but they didn't, because theater turned out to have qualities movies could not reproduce. Equally, TV was supposed to replace movies but, again, did not.
I) Movies did, however, fatally impact some parts of live theater. And while TV didn't kill movies, it did kill second-rate pictures, shorts, and cartoons.
J) Nor did TV kill radio. Comedy and drama shows (“Jack Benny,” "Amos and Andy.” “The Shadow”)all migrated to television. But because you can't drive a car and watch television at the same time, rush hour became radio's prime time, while music, talk, and news radio greatly enlarged their audiences. Radio is today a very different business than in the late 1940s and a much larger one.
K) Sometimes old technology lingers for centuries because of its symbolic power. Mounted cavalry (骑兵)replaced the chariot (二轮战车)on the battlefield around 1000 BC. But chariots maintained their place in parades and triumphs right up until the end of the Roman Empire 1 500 years later. The sword hasn't had a military function for a hundred years, but is still part of an officer's full-dress uniform, precisely because a sword always symbolized “an officer and a gentleman. ”
L) Sometimes new technology is a little cranky (不稳定的)at first. Television repairman was a common occupation in the 1950s, for instance. And so the old technology remains as a backup. Steamships captured the North Atlantic passenger business from sail in the 1840s because of its much greater speed. But steamships didn't lose their sails until the 1880s, because early marine engines had a nasty habit of breaking down. Until ships became large enough (and engines small enough) to mount two engines side by side, they needed to keep sails. (The high cost of steam and the lesser need for speed kept the majority of the world’s ocean freight moving by sail until the early years of the 20th century.)
M) Then there is the fireplace. Central heating was present in every upper- and middle-class home by the second half of the 19th century. But functioning fireplaces remain to this day a powerful selling point in a house or apartment. I suspect the reason is a deep-rooted love of fire. Fire was one of the earliest major technological advances for humankind, providing heat, protection, and cooked food (which is much easier to cat and digest). Human control of fire goes back far enough (over a million years) that evolution could have produced a genetic leaning towards fire as a control aspect of human life.
N) Books—especially books the average person could afford—haven't been around long enough to produce evolutionary change in humans. But they have a powerful hold on many people nonetheless, a hold extending far beyond their literary content. At their best, they arc works of art and there is a tactile(触觉的)pleasure in books necessarily lost in e-book versions. The ability to quickly thumb through pages is also lost. And a room with books in it induces, at least in some, a feeling not dissimilar to that of a fire in the fireplace on a cold winter's night.
O) For these reasons I think physical books will have a longer existence as a commercial product than some currently predict. Like swords, books have symbolic power. Like fireplaces, they induce a sense of comfort and warmth. And, perhaps, similar to sails, they make a useful backup for when the lights go out.
46. Authors still published in printed versions will be considered important ones.
47. Some people are still in favor of printed books because of the sense of touch they can provide.
48. The radio business has changed greatly and now attracts more listeners.
49. Contrary to many people's prediction of its death, the film industry survived.
50. Remarkable changes have taken place in the book business.
51. Old technology sometimes continues to exist because of its reliability.
52. The increase of e-book sales will force the book business lo make changes not seen for centuries.
53. A new technology is unlikely to take the place of an old one without a clear advantage.
54. Paperbacks of popular literature arc more likely to be replaced by e-books.
55. A house with a fireplace has a stronger appeal to buyers.
Section C
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
The question of whether our government should promote science and technology or the liberal arts in higher education isn't an either or proposition (命题), although the current emphasis on preparing young Americans for STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths)-related fields can make it seem that way.
The latest congressional report acknowledges the critical importance of technical training, but also asserts that the study of the humanities (人文学科) and social sciences must remain central components of America's educational system at all levels. Both areas arc critical to producing citizens who can participate effectively in our democratic society. become innovative (创新的)leaders, and benefit from the spiritual enrichment that the reflection on the great ideas of mankind over time provides.
Parents and students who have invested heavily in higher education worry about graduates' job prospects as technological advances and changes in domestic and global markets transform professions in ways that reduce wages and cut jobs. Under these circumstances, it's natural to look for what may appear to be the most “practical” way out of the problem: "Major in a subject designed to get you a job” seems the obvious answer to some, though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as “soft” often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run. Indeed, according to surveys, employers have expressed a preference for students who have received a broadly-based education that has taught them to write well, think critically, research creatively, and communicate easily.
Moreover, students should be prepared not just for their first job. but for their 4th and 5th jobs, as there’s little reason to doubt that people entering the workforce today will be called upon to play many different roles over the course of their careers. The ones who will do the best in this new environment will be those whose educations have prepared them to be flexible. The ability to draw upon every available tool and insight—-picked up from science, arts, and technology to solve the problems of the future, and take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves, will be helpful to them and the United States.
56. What does the latest congressional report suggest?
A) STEM-related subjects help students find jobs in the information society.
B) The humanities and STEM subjects should be given equal importance.
C) The liberal arts in higher education help enrich students' spiritual life.
D) Higher education should be adjusted to the practical needs of society.
57. What is the main concern of students when they choose a major?
A) Their interest in relevant subjects. C) The quality of education to receive.
B) The academic value of the courses. D) Their chances of getting a good job.
58. What does the author say about the so-called soft subjects?
A) They benefit students in their future life.
B) They broaden students' range of interests.
C) They improve students’ communication skills.
D) They are essential to students’ healthy growth.
59. What kind of job applicants do employers look for?
A) Those who have a strong sense of responsibility.
B) Those who are good at solving practical problems.
C) Those who are likely to become innovative leaders.
D) Those who have received a well-rounded education.
60. What advice does the author give to college students?
A) Seize opportunities to tap their potential. C) Prepare themselves for different job options.
B) Try to take a variety of practical courses. D) Adopt a flexible approach to solving problems.
Passage Two
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Energy independence. It has a nice ring to it. doesn't it? If you think so, you’re not alone, because energy independence has been the dream of American presidents for decades, and never more so than in the past few years, when the most recent oil price shock has been partly responsible for kicking off the great recession.
"Energy independence'' and its rhetorical (修辞的)companion "energy security” are, however, slippery concepts that arc rarely thought through. What is it we want independence from, exactly?
Most people would probably say that they want to be independent from imported oil. But there are reasons that we buy all that oil from elsewhere.
The first reason is that we need it to keep our economy running. Yes, there is a trickle (涓涓细流)of biofuel (生物燃料)available, and more may become available, but most biofuels cause economic waste and environmental destruction.
Second, Americans have basically decided that they don’t really want to produce all their own oil. They value the environmental quality they preserve over their oil imports from abroad. Vast areas of the United States are off-limits to oil exploration and production in the name of environmental protection. To what extent arc Americans really willing to endure the environmental impacts of domestic energy production in order to cut back imports?
Third, there are benefits to trade. It allows for economic efficiency, and when we buy things from places that have lower production costs than we do, we benefit. And although you don’t read about this much, the United States is also a large exporter of oil products, selling about 2 million barrels of petroleum products per day to about 90 countries.
There is no question that the United States imports a great deal of energy and. in fact, relies on that steady flow to maintain its economy. When that flow is interrupted, we feel the pain in short supplies and higher prices. At the same time, we derive massive economic benefits when we buy the most affordable energy on the world market and when we engage in energy trade around the world.
61. What does the author say about energy independence for America?
A) It sounds very attractive. C) It will bring oil prices down.
B) It ensures national security. D) It has long been everyone's dream.
62. What does the author think of biofuels?
A) They keep America s economy running healthily.
B) They prove to be a good alternative to petroleum.
C) They do not provide a sustainable energy supply.
D) They cause serious damage to the environment.
63. Why does America rely heavily on oil imports?
A) It wants to expand its storage of crude oil.
B) Its own oil reserves arc quickly running out.
C) It wants to keep its own environment intact.
D) Its own oil production falls short of demand.
64. What does the author say about oil trade?
A) It proves profitable to both sides. C) It makes for economic prosperity.
B) It improves economic efficiency. D) It saves the cost of oil exploration.
65. What is the author's purpose in writing the passage?
A) To justify America's dependence on oil imports.
B) To arouse Americans’ awareness of the energy crisis
C) To stress the importance of energy conservation.
D) To explain the increase of international oil trade.




36. I) melted
37. G) line
本空空前是介词,因此需要名词性成分,且要考虑与空后的with构成搭配。符合要求的只有line(in line with,与……一致)。意思是我们已经接近“与其他最小冰川期时一致的温度”。
38. C) contributing
前句用完成时表示已经达到的状态,本句we are描述的则是正在发生的过程,需要动词的ing形式,且要考虑与空后的介词to构成搭配。备选的有appealing to(呼吁、上诉)、contributing to(促成、导致),ranging后不直接与介词to构成搭配。意思合理的只有contributing,为“我们正促成世界范围内气温的升高”。
39. K) ranging
本空引领的是temperature的后置定语,需要动词分词。备选的有appealing(呼吁、上诉)、ranging(范围在……)和resolved(决心)。空后的between 1℃ and 6 ℃明显是范围区间,因此ranging合乎语义。range between/from A and B为常用搭配。
40. D) dramatic
本空作为表语,且空前有more,提示了本空需要形容词。备选的有appealing(有吸引力的)、dramatic(戏剧性的、突发的)和sensible(明智的)。这里描述的是气候变化的效果,因此dramatic意思更合适,意为“某些地方的气候变化会更加戏剧化”。后半句提到的有些地方可能cool off(变冷)也是暗示气候变化的突发及剧烈。
41. F) impact
空前的the暗示本空需要名词。备选的有average(平均)、impact(影响)和shock(震惊)。impact和shock都能用于与warming构成搭配,但后面提到的different depending on where you are提示了本空应当是一个较为宽泛的概念,故impact更合适,意为“气候变暖的影响因所在地不同而不同”。
42. A) appealing
空前的and提示了本空与and前的habitable(宜居的)同词性且义相近。因此本空需要形容词,备选的有appealing(有吸引力的)和sensible(明智的)。意思上与habitable更能并列、描述本句所说的Siberia and northern Canada的影视appealing,表示“西伯利亚和加拿大北部可能会变得更宜居、更吸引人”。
43. B) average
空前介词on提示了本空需要名词性成分与之构成搭配。备选的有average(平均)和shock(震惊)。这里意思更合理的是average,且on average是固定搭配“平均地”。
44. H) maintain
45. L) recently
本空所在句不缺其它成分,本空需要副词。备选的又frequently(频繁地)和recently(最近)。空前提到科学家认为气候变化无规律,有些年冷、有些年热(some years are cold, others warm)。本空所在的we have just had an unremarkable string of warm years应当是顺着科学家的观点而来,解释我们现在所处的正好是偏热的年份期。因此本空用recently强调当下更佳。若选frequently表示“我们频繁处在偏热的年份”,则与科学家所持的气温冷热无规律交替的观点不相符合。
46. Authors still published in printed versions will be considered important ones.
解析:对应C段末句。printed versions(纸质版本)对应hard copy(印刷版本),be considered important ones(被认为重要)对应become the mark…to reckon(认为是标志)。
47. Some people are still in favor of printed books because of the sense of touch they can provide.
解析:对应N段第三句提到的tactile pleasure in books(书本的触觉上的愉悦)。
48. The radio business has changed greatly and now attracts more listeners.
解析:对应J段最后两句。changed greatly(巨大改变)对应a very different business(相当不同的行业),attracts more listeners(吸引更多听众)对应enlarged their audience(扩大受众面)。
49. Contrary to many people’s prediction of its death, the film industry survived.
解析:对应H段第二句。many people’s prediction对应widely predicted。
50. Remarkable changes have taken place in the book business.
51. Old technology sometimes continues to exist because of its reliability.
解析:对应L段第三句。continues to exist(继续存在)对应remain(保持),reliability(可靠)对应backup(支持、后盾)。
52. The increase of e-book sales will force the book business to make changes not seen for centuries.
解析:对应B段第三句。make changes(做出改变)对应go through a transformation(经历转变),not seen for centuries是对该句后部分时间表达的概括。
53. A new technology is unlikely to take the place of an old one without a clear advantage.
解析:对应F段第一句。a clear advantage(明显优势)岁对better, cheaper or both的概括。take the place of(代替)对应replace(代替)。
54. Paperbacks of popular literature are more likely to be replaced by e-books.
55. A house with a fireplace has a stronger appeal to buyers.
解析:对应M段第三句。has a stronger appeal to buyers(对购买者有很强吸引力)对应a powerful selling point(强劲卖点)。
本题属于观点型细节题,问最近的一次国会报告提出了什么建议。根据题干定位词latest congressional report定位到文章第二段第一句。Acknowledge意为“承认”,引出观点。前半句非常简单,“最近的一次国会报告承认了技术训练的关键性”,后半句以but进行语义转折,意为“但是他们也认为关于人文学科和社会科学的研究都必须在任何等级的美国教育系统中作为核心部分”。之后的both areas are critical to…都是在描述这两门学科对塑造人才的积极影响,可以略读。
A. STEM在第一段有解释,分别由science, technology, engineering和maths的首字母组成,意为“科学”,“技术”,“工程学”和“数学”。所以A选项的意思是“与STEM相关的学科可以帮助学生在信息社会找到工作”。文章对于STEM的影响的描述只出现在第二段的最后一句话,但没有提及能帮助找工作,属于无中生有,排除。
B. 意思是“人文学科和STEM应该被给与相同的重要性”。通过第二段第一句话but后面的内容可以确定B为正选。选项唯一的难点是STEM在文中是以social science进行同义替换的方式出现的。Should be given equal importance和原文的must remain central components of …对应。
C. “高等教育的文科能帮助学生丰富精神世界”。C选项的干扰性同样来自于第二段的最后一句,但需要注意的是原文所说的spiritual enrichment是由reflection on the great ideas of mankind提供而非选项所指的liberal arts. 故C排除。
D. “高等教育应该适用于社会的实际需求”。这个选项属于无中生有,比较容易排除。
题目问学生选择专业时主要关心什么。结合顺序原则可以大致定位到第三段,本段前两句话讲述了家长和学生们在为高等教育做出巨大投资之后所以担心的问题就是市场的变化可能会导致孩子们将来就业机会变少以及工资降低。并且根据这个大背景提出了一个公认的解决的办法,也就是由题干中的major定位到的本段第三句,“Major in a subject designed to get you a job”seems the obvious answer to some,… 意思是“选择一个为给你找到工作而设计的专业是大部分人认可大答案”。
问作者如何评价所谓的“软”学科。本题答案依然出自于第三段,57题定位句的后半句,即though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as “soft” often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run.本句的disciplines与subjects都是“学科”的意思,所以这句话可以翻译成“尽管他们忽略一个事实,那就是人文学科中那些被描述成“软”学科的,通常能够能够促成将来的就业和成功”。
A.“他们会在将来的生活使学生受益。”benefit与原文的lead to employment and success对应,in their future与原文的in the long run对应。A为正选。
问老板想找什么类型的应聘者。答案出自第三段最后一句话,employers have expressed a preference for students who received a broadly-based education that has taught them how to write well, think carefully, research creatively, and communicate easily. 这句话非常直白地告诉我们老板所偏爱的员工是接受过broadly-based education的人,即“全方位教育”,所以与这句话有相同描述的选项即为正选。
问作者给大学生提了什么建议。全文只有四段话,前三段都已经用于解决之前的四道题,所以最后一题自然而然地定位到最后一段。并且由第一句里的students should…可以看出这段话主要是在讨论相关的建议。由于没有具体的定位词可以参考,所以一般情况下咱们需要快速读完整段话再一一对应选项看有没有符合的内容。
61、A 此题并非主旨题,按顺序原则及题干信息定位首段。 “If you think so, you’re not alone”表明作者持有同样想法,答案往“so”前面找——“Energy independence. It has a nice ring to it, doesn’t it?” have a nice ring to sth.表示“听起来不错,令人向往”的意思,选项A的attractive是其同义改写。即使不了解短语,根据nice可判断正态度,答案选A。
62、D 由题干信息biofuels定位在第四段落。定位句本身出现but强调:“but most biofuels are a Faustian bargain, causing economic waste and environmental destruction. ”but后面的强调才是作者对于biofuels的真正想法——causing economic waste and environmental destruction。选项中AB选项均为正态度,与原文不符直接排除。原文中C选项为干扰选项,“可持续的能源供给”,文章未提及。
63 、C 按照阅读出题的“顺序原则”直接看到下一段(第五段)。首句“Americans have basically decided that they don’t really want to produce all their own oil. ”美国人不愿意自己产油,是63题题干信息当中“…America rely on heavily on oil imports”的同义改写。根据“金三句原则”定位到定位句的下一句“the American people…decided that they value the environmental quality they preserve over their oil imports from abroad. ”相比从国外进口石油,美国人更看重环境质量,由此判断,答案选C——“keep environment intact”。
64、B 根据定位词oil trade以及顺序原则定位到文章最后一段。根据文章主旨和前文内容,或者是根据定位段信息可知“United States imports a great of energy”,让能源输出国有利可图,而同时“At the same time”,美国本身也有自身利益——“we derive massive economic benefits…when we engage in energy trade around the world.”,答案选B——“It proves profitable to both sides”。
65、A 问作者写作意图,即问全文主旨。根据各段首句以及串联五个题干信息可得知,文章主要讨论“America”的“energy independence”,就可以直接排除BCD选项了。为做题保险,还要进一步确认。由文章末端的结尾“At the same time, we derive massive economic benefits…when we engage in energy trade around the world.” 可得知作者态度还是站在“oil imports”这一边的,因为可以得到“massive economic benefits”,所以作者还是在为“oil imports”而申辩的。答案选A。