A child who has once been pleased with a tale likes,as a rule,to have it retold in identically the same words,but this should not lead parents to treat printed fairy stories as sacred texts.It is always much better to tell a story than read it out of a book, and if a parent can produce what, in the actual circumstances of the time and the individual child,is an improvement on the printed text, so much the better.
A charge made against fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousing his sadistic(施虐狂的) impulses. To prove the latter, one would have to show in a controlled experiment that children who have read fairy slories were more often guilty of cruelty than those who had not. Aggressive,destructive, sadistic impulses every child has and, on the whole, their symbolic verbal discharge seems to be rather a safety valve than an incitement (刺激) to overt action.
As to fears, there are, I think, well-authenticated cases of children being dangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however,this arises from the child having heard the story once. Familiarity with the story by repetition turns the pair of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced and mastered.
There are also people who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectively true, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do not exist; and that instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the child should be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. I find such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do not know how to argue with them. If their case were sound, the world should be full of mad men attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick or covering a telephone with kisses in the belief that it was their enchanted girlfriend.
No fairy stories ever claimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has ever believed that it was.
1.According to the author, a fairy story is more effective when it is_________________.
2.The author thinks children's symbolic verbal discharge is not an incitement to overt action, but__________________.
3.If the child hears a fearful fairy story once and again, he may not feel______________________.
4.Why fairy stories are objected to by some people who think the child should be taught how to adapt to reality?
5.What's the author's attitude to fairy stories?


1.[adapted by the parent/improved to be told by the parent]
[定位]根据more effective定位于第1段。
解析:作者认为,父母讲故事要比念故事好,如果能够根据实际的时间和小孩个体的情况,相应地改进书上的童话故事就更好。因此可归纳为adapted by the parent或者improved to be told by the parent。
2.[a safety valve]
解析:题目的not... but结构表明空白处需填人与an incitement一样的名词性结构。在第2段,作者反驳了对神话故事使小孩产生施虐倾向的控诉。他指出,每个小孩都有侵略性和破坏性,但他们的典型言语流露与其说是公然挑衅的行为,还不如说是安全阀(自我保护的威胁性的话)。原文的rather... than结构否定的是than后的内容,因此rather后的名词短语为答案所在。
[定位]根据hears a fearful fairy story once定位于第3段第2、3句。
4.[Because they think the fairy stories are not objectively true.]
[定位]根据objected to定位于第4段第1句。
解析:第4段中,作者提到有人反对童话故事,理由是它们不真实。原文中的on the grounds that后的内容即答案所在。